Stone Dictionary H-M

– H –

Hand-cut random
rectangular ashlar —
a pattern where all the stone is hand cut into squares
and rectangulars. Joints are fairly consistent similar to sawed-bed ashlar in appearance.

Hand or machine pitch-faced
(rock-faced) ashlar — a finish given to both veneer stone and cutting stock. Establishing
a straight line back from the irregular face of the stone creates this. Proper tools
are then used to cut along the line, leaving a straight arris and the intended rustic
finish on the face.

Head — the end
of a stone that has been tooled to march the face of the stone. Heads are used at
outside corners, windows, doorjambs, or any place where the veneering will be visible
from the side.

Hearth — that part
of the floor of a fireplace of stone on which the fire is laid.

Hearth stone
originally the single large stone or stones used for the hearth, now most commonly
used to describe the stone in of the fire chamber and many times extending on either
or both sides of the front of the fire chamber.

Holes — sinkages
in the top beds of stones to engage Lewis pins for hoisting.

Honed finish
honed is a super fine smooth finish, thought not as fine as a polished finish.

– I –

Igneous —
one of the three great classes of rock (igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic) solidified
from molten state, as granite and lavas.

Incise — to cut
inwardly or engrave, as in an inscription.

Inscription — lettering
cut in stone.

– J –

Jack arch —
one having horizontal or nearly horizontal upper and lower surfaces. Also called
flat or straight arch.

Joint — the space
between stone units, usually filled with mortar.

Jointing scheme
— architects drawing detailing dimensions, location and configuration of marble
units and joints as related to the structure.

Jumper — in ashlar
patterns, a piece of stone of higher rise than adjacent stones which is used to
end a horizontal mortar joint at the point where it is set.

– K –

Keystone —
the last wedge-shaped stone placed in the crown of an arch regarded as binding the

– L –

Lava —
a general term applied to igneous rocks, such as basalt and rhyolite, that erupted
from the earth by volcanic action.

Lead buttons
lead spacers in the solid horizontal joints to support the top stones until the
mortar has set.

Lewis holes — holes
in cut stones for lifting and support during setting of cut stones and sometimes
for permanent support. Holes are checked for the particular Lewis lifting device
or hook to be used.

Limestone — a sedimentary
rock composed of calcium carbonate; includes many varieties (see oolitic limestone,
dolomitic limestone, crystalline limestone.) Limestones that contain not more than
five per cent magnesium carbonate may be termed calcite limestone, as distinguished
from those that contain between five and 40% as the mineral dolomite (dolostone,
formerly known as the rock dolomite). Recrystallized limestones and compact, dense,
relatively pure microcrystalline varieties that are capable of taking a polish are
included in commercial marbles.

Liners — structurally
sound sections of marble that are cemented to the back of marble veneer slabs to
give greater strength, additional bearing surface, or to increase joint depth.

Lintel — the block
of stone spanning the top of an opening such as a doorway or window; sometimes called
a head.

Lipping — usually
refers to flagging materials; caused when two pieces of material to be joined together
are slightly warped or twisted causing one of more edges to be higher or lower than
the adjoining material.

Lug sill — a stone
sill set into the jambs on each side of masonry opening.