Stone Dictionary T-W

T –

Tablet — A small, flat slab or surface of stone, especially one bearing or intended to bear an inscription, carving or the like.

Template — a pattern for repetitive marking or fabricating operation.

Terrazzo — a type of concrete in which chips or pieces of stone, usually marble, are mixed with cement and are ground to a flat surface, exposing the chips, which take a high polish.

Thin marble — a fabricated marble unit of w inches (50 mm) or less in thickness.

Tile — a thin modular stone unit.

Tolerance — dimensional allowance made for the inability of men and machines to fabricate a product of exact dimensions.

Throat — the name sometimes given to the small groove under the windowsill or dripstone intended to deflect rainwater from the wall face.

Tooled finish — customarily has four, six, or eight parallel, concave grooves to the inch.

Tracery — ornamentation of panels, circular windows, window heads, etc.

Translucence — the light-emitting quality of certain marble varieties containing a crystal structure capable of transmitting light.

Travertine limestone — a variety of limestone that has a partly crystalline or microcrystalline texture and porous or cellular layered structure, the cells being usually concentrated along certain layers and commonly displaying small stalactitic forms.

Travertine marble — a variety of limestone regarded as a product of chemical precipitation from hot springs. Travertine is cellular with the cells usually concentrated in thin layers that display a stalactitic structure. Some that take a polish are sold as marble and may be classified as travertine marble under the class of commercial marble.

Tread — a flat stone used as the top-walking surface on steps.

Trim — stone used as decorative items only, such as sill, coping, enframements, etc., with the facing of another material.

Trimmer arch — a stone arch, usually a low-rise arch, used for supporting a fireplace hearth.

Tuff — cemented volcanic ash, many varieties included.

– U –

Undercut — cut so as to present an overhanging part.

– V –

Vein cut — cutting quarried marble or stone perpendicular to the natural bedding plane.

Veining — coloured markings in limestone, marble, alabaster, etc.

Veneer — a non-load bearing facing of stone attached to a backing for the purpose of ornamentation, protection or insulation. Veneer shall support no vertical load other than its own weight and possibly the vertical dead load of veneer above.

Veneer stone — a non-loadbearing facing of stone attached to a backing for the purpose of ornamentation, protection or insulation. Veneer shall support no vertical load other than its own weight and possibly the vertical dead load of veneer above.

Venting — a method used to allow air and moisture to escape to the outside from the wall cavity (see cavity vent).

Verde antique — a marble composed chiefly of massive serpentine and capable of being polished. It is commonly crossed by veinlets of other minerals, chiefly carbonates of calcium and magnesium.

– W –

Wall plate — a horizontal member anchored to a masonry wall to which other structural elements may be attached. Also called “head plate”. Usually steel, 3/16-inch (5mm) in diameter and formed in a “Z” shape or a rectangle.

Wall tie — a bounder or metal piece which connects wythes of masonry to each other or to other materials.

Wall tie cavity — a rigid corrosion-resistant metal tie which bonds two wythes of a cavity wall. It is filling of natural void with colour-blended materials.

Walls — one of the sides of a room or building connecting floor and ceiling or foundation and roof:

Walls bearing — a wall supporting a vertical load in addition to its own weight.

  • Cavity a wall in which the inner and outer wythes are separated by an air space but tied together with metal ties.
  • Composite — a wall in which the facing and backing are of different materials and bonded together with bond stones to exert a common reaction under load.
  • Veneer or face — a wall in which a thin facing and the backing are of different materials but not so bonded as to exert a common reaction under load.
  • Wind (wined) — a twisting warp from cutting slabs in the gangsaws.

Warped walls — generally a condition experienced only in flagging or flagstone materials; very common with flagstone materials that are taken from the ground and used in their natural state. To eliminate warping in stones, it would be necessary to further finish the material by methods such as machining, sand rubbing, honing or polishing.

Wash — a sloped area or the area water will run over.

Water bar — typically a strip in a reglet in windowsill and stone below to prevent water passage.

Water table — a projection of lowest masonry on the outside of the wall slightly above the ground. Often a damp course is placed at the level of the water table to prevent upward penetration of ground water.

Waxing — an expression used in the marble finishing trade to indicate the filling of natural voids with colour-blended materials.

Wear — the removal of material or impairment of surface finishing through friction or impact use.

Weathering — natural alteration by either chemical or mechanical processes due to the action of constituents of the atmosphere, surface waters, soil and other ground waters, or to temperature changes; the inclined top surface of a stone such as a coping, cornice, or windowsill.

Wedging — splitting of stone by driving wedges into planes of weakness.

Wire saw — method of cutting stone by passing a twisted, multi-strand wire over the stone and immersing the wire in a slurry of abrasive material