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Generating Electricity with Solar Energy

Law No. 5784 adopted in July 9th 2008 states that everyone can produce their own electricity up to 500 kWs. There is no need to get a license from the state. Whether you have a house, a workshop, a warehouse or a factory, you can produce your own electricity.

A- Off-Grid Systems

In these systems, generated energy can be stored in battery groups and the stored energy can be transformed by inverters into main voltage to be used.

1- Remote Systems that Only Need DC Load:

Such systems work 12 V or 24 V DC devices. For example, they can work in 12 V DC Lamp, 12 V DC television or fridges; and mountain houses without electricity, camping sites, caravans and boats.

 

Solar Panel System    Wind Turbine System Solar / Wind System    
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2- Remote Systems that Work with AC Load:

In places where there is no electricity, these systems are used in order to work 220 V or 380 V AC devices. There is no problem with these systems. They can perform in any capacity in appropriate projects. Direct current (DC) generated from the panels of solar energy or wind energy, is first used to charge the batteries through regulators. Stored energy is transformed into alternative current (AC) with inverters. When there is enough light or wind, stored energy can be used in households for 24 hours.

Equipments used in these systems; A- Solar Panels / Wind Turbine B- Solar / Wind Charge Control C- Battery D- AC Inverter E- AC Output F-Solar Panel Systems G-Wind Turbine Systems H-Wind/Generator Supported Hybrid Systems

 

 

Systems with Solar Panel Systems with Wind Turbine Hybrid Systems with Wind/Generator
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B. On-Grid Systems

The basic principle is that you can sell the extra electricity you produce and when you need more you can purchase it from the main grid. This way, there are no costs for batteries and charge control. Also it makes possible to use environment-friendly energy among main grid systems. Such systems provide an opportunity to users to compensate their investment costs in 12-18 months.

1- On-Grid Systems

Direct current from solar panels is transformed to alternative current that is especially used on the main grid. Generated electricity is not stored and is used for instant energy needs. This system is used in order to minimize the amount of electricity taken from the main grid exempted from legal procedures, and to consume it with respect to the environment.

Example: On-Grid 100KW system supported by a generator. When the energy generated by solar panels is not enough, the system uses the energy from the main grid. When there is no solar energy or support from the grid, the inverter gives the order to the generator, preventing any power outage. The purpose of this system is to generate constant energy with minimum costs

 

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On-Grid multiple system can be

supported with several solar panels in

order to minimize the energy received

from the main grid. Also, you can

connect generators and battery

systems on demand.

 

2- On-Grid Commercial Systems

Direct current from solar panels is transformed by inverters into alternative current that is especially used on the main grid. Generated energy is directly sent to the grid through the meter. Electricity for household or office use is taken from the main grid. There are certain legal procedures so the owner of the system can have an income as the amount of generated electricity. Consumers who prepare the necessary documents for admission can apply for connection.

Establishing an License-free Energy Production Facility and Acquisition Steps

1. Preparing a land, power type and official papers for unlicensed production facility

2. Permission for pre-application for the distribution

2.1- Acquiring pre-application form, land title, rental documents;

            2.2- Creating an electrical single-line diagram;

2.3- Invoice details of the current facility;

2.4- Preparing a sketch of 1/25000 map;

2.5- Official papers of the company making the acquisition;

2.6- Preparing the pre-application form;

2.7- Payment of pre-application fees;

3. Getting a permission from the electricity distribution company –or if necessary getting permission from Teiaş (Turkish Electricity Transmission Company) for pre-application;

4. Making agreement for connection with the local distribution;

5. Getting a permission from the municipality or the Secretary General of Special Provincial Administration of the area where the facility will be established;

5.1- Preliminary survey for the construction plan;

5.2- Getting a conformity report for the facility from 11 government institutions;

5.3- These institutions are mainly, State Hydraulic Works, Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Public Works and Settlement and some other institutions under Secretary General Special Provincial Administration;

6. 1/1000- 1/5000 mapping upon request;

7. Static and Dynamic Load calculations for the facility;

8. Acquiring “an exemption from Environmental Assessment Report” from Ministry of Environment and Urbanization;

9. Preparation for the construction documents of the facility and getting permission from Ministry of Energy and the Chamber of Electrical Engineers;

10. Payment of commission duties;

11. Acquiring temporary maintenance procedures from the local distribution company;

12. Acquiring temporary maintenance procedures from Ministry of Energy

 

 

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3-On-Grid Commercial / Battery Systems

Direct current from solar panels is first used with the regulator to charge batteries. When the batteries are full, it is transformed through the inverter into alternative current similar to the grid. Generated energy is sent from the meter to the main grid. In addition, if there is not enough sun, batteries can be charged from the main grid. Also, in case of power outage the household gets the energy from batteries.

Therefore, the owner of the system can gain income from the generated energy and be able to have electricity during power outage.

 

 

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Generating Electricity

Photons in solar rays hit photovoltaic cells and get absorbed by silicium cells.

While electrons liberated from their atoms move from one side of the material to other side; positive holes left out by the moving electrons move opposite to the electrons. Therefore electricity is generated.

 

Photovoltaic (PV)

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Potential Solar Energy Map
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Example 1: On-Grid Commercial System

Building a small-scale solar energy facility on a house roof.

A person who wants to produce license-free electricity plans to build a solar energy facility on top his roof (150 m2), on the 105 m2 area receiving sun light. For every 1 kW, 7 m2 of space is needed; so he uses 15 kW photovoltaic solar panels. Let’s assume the system has been set and started working.

If we consider that the facility receives 7 hours of sunlight, the daily production will be 7×15 kW= 105 kWh. A household consumes 10 kWh energy per day, so he will have a surplus of 105-10=95 kWh. Let’s assume that the next day will be cloudy and solar rays will be less. If the facility receives 4 hours of light, it will produce 4×15= 60 kWh of electricity. If we assume that the daily energy consumption increases to 15 kWh energy, then he will have a surplus of 45 kWh. According to these numbers we will calculate the total amount of cost of support (13,3 $ cents) for two days:

1st day: 95 kWh x 0,133 USD/kWh x 1,85 TL/USD = 23,37 TL

2nd day: 45 kWh x 0,133 USD/kWh x 1,85 TL/USD = 11,07 TL

 

Let us continue for the cost of use and invoice for 15 days for both situations.

(15 x 95 = 1425) + (15 x 45 = 675 ) = 2100 x 0,133 x 1,85 = 516,70 TL (without the cost of use and others)

This person consumes 10 kWh per day of 15 days. When calculated:

(15 x 10=150) + ( 15 x 15 = 225) = 375 kWh monthly electricity consumption.

If this person did not build this facility, he would be paying a subscription fee for the electricity. So, he would pay an energy cost of 375 x 26 Kuruş[1] = 97,50 TL. He also would have to pay the cost of use and other costs. In conclusion, without feasibility, investment and management costs, this person gets

– 516,70 TL as a support payment (excluding the cut of the cost of use and others)

and he is exempted to pay an electricity bill of 97,50 TL (excluding the cost of use and others).

 

Example 2: On-Grid Commercial System

Building a solar energy facility on a buildings roof.

Let’s assume 16 apartments in a building authorize someone among them to produce and consume license-free electricity. The building has a roof of 4×150 m2=600 m2, and 300 m2 face the sun. Including the spots that get indirect sunlight, the area for photovoltaic panel application will be 350 m2. For every 1 kW, 7 m2 of space is needed; so he uses 50 kW photovoltaic solar panels. Let’s assume the system has been set and started working.

 If we consider that the facility receives 7 hours of sunlight, the daily production will be 7×50 kW= 350 kWh. A household consumes 10 kWh energy per day, so 16 apartments will consume 160 kWh. From the total amount of production, there will have a surplus of 350-160=190 kWh. Let’s assume that the next day will be cloudy and solar rays will be less. If the facility receives 4 hours of light, it will produce 4×50= 200 kWh of electricity. If we assume that the daily energy consumption increases to 15 kWh energy, whole building will consume 16 x 15 = 240 kWh. In this case, consumption of energy from the whole system will be 200-240=-40 kWh. Let’s use the 15 days example for both situations. According to these numbers we will calculate the total amount of cost of support (13,3 $ cents) and the subscription fee (26 krş/kWh) for two days:

1st day: 190 kWh x 0,133 USD/kWh x 1,85 TL/USD = 46,74 TL support payment

2nd day: -40 kWh x 30 krş = 12 TL energy subscription fee.

Cost of use and other fees will be subtracted and added to both results. First result will show the assets, the second the invoice. Let’s assume both situations continue for 15 days.

1st days result: 190 x 15 = 2850 kWh x 0,133 USD/kWh x 1,85 TL/USD = 701,24 TL (assets)

2nd days result: 40 x 15 = 600 kWh x 26 krş = 156 TL (invoice)

In this case, the person will get 701,24-156 = 545,24 TL of monthly support cost. However, we also have to calculate the cost of energy consumed by the people in the building: the consumption from the generated energy will be 15X160=2400 kWh. If there was no production, they would pay 26 krş of subscription fee: 2400 kWh x 26 krş = 624 TL (excluding the cost of use and other fees). In conclusion, without feasibility, investment and management costs, these people get

– 521,24 TL as a support payment (excluding the cut of the cost of use and others)

and they is exempted to pay an electricity bill of 624 TL (excluding the cost of use and others).

 

Generating Electricity with Wind Energy

The source of wind energy is solar energy. Wind energy is formed by the irregularities on land and the differences of heat in the atmosphere. Although only a small part of solar energy reaching the earth turn into wind energy, the total amount of wind energy is greater. In many areas, wind energy can have a natural density equal to or more than the average density of solar energy. Topography is an important factor in terms of wind regime. It can be a disadvantage for wind energy, but at the same time it is also a great advantage. In areas where wind energy is highly concentrated, it is possible to establish energy production facilities by putting more than one wind power system. Wind has a natural potential due to its kinetic energy. This is called natural potential of wind energy. One part of this natural potential can be transformed into energy by the use of common physical laws and current technological advancements: this is called technical potential of wind energy; and the part that can be used economically as compared to other energy sources is called economic potential of wind energy. Given that our country is a peninsula, it is possible to use various types of small aerogenerators to produce energy by the sea, on the hills and some deltas.

Even though Turkey’s great potential for solar and wind energy is known for a long time, low rate guarantee, government’s 600 kW limit to solar energy, complicated and long procedures to get a license were the biggest obstacles for this market to grow. According to the circular published in the Official Gazette on December 3rd 2010, turbines up to 500 kW can be connected to the main grid and can sell the surplus of their production to distributors. Payments and settlements are made monthly.

 

 

Potential Wind Energy Map
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Wind Energy Equipments and Generating Electricity;

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A simple description;

Wind hits the fan blades on the tower of the wind turbine and moves them, this movement generates direct current (DC) in the generator box. This energy is organized in an inverter control unit and can be put out as DC or AC. They can be connected to the main grid by inverters compliant with the grid; and similar to solar energy, they can be used in any type of consumption.

 

 

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Wind Turbines;

 

14_BilgilendirmeVertical Turbines: These turbines rotate vertically. The advantageous feature is that the turbines do not have to turn to the wind, they can grasp the wind from any side – It is efficient for areas where wind’s direction changes all the time. The generator and the wheel box can be replaced close to the ground, so the tower does not have to carry their weight.

Our company chooses to import vertical turbines for these and further advantages:

Other advantages of vertical turbines generating energy from 200 W up to 50 kW:

  • Vertical wind turbines can be mounted close to the ground or on building rooftops.
  • In lower wind speeds, they can generate more energy than horizontal turbines. They start generating electricity with 4 m/s of wind and they cannot be completely stopped in their fast mode. The turbine can be slowed down by changing the angle of the blades. Therefore, they can continue generating energy in fast winds.
  • They don’t make any noise while working due to advanced aerodynamic features of the blades.
  • They do not require high towers. They can be build in areas where high buildings are prohibited.

They can be used in urban areas: they don’t make noise, the don’t require any tower, they can be mounted on roofs and they are affected by variable wind speeds.

 

 

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These are common turbines that have horizontal rotation. Main motor shaft and the generator are on top of the tower and should be turned towards the wind. Their sizes vary from very big to small. Small turbines are turned with a simple wind tail; and big turbines use a wind censor and a servomotor to turn. The propellers facing the wind produce the electrical energy. Even though the numbers of the propellers change, there are usually 3 of them. Small wind turbines produce 100-1000 watts of electricity, and big turbines produce hundreds of watts, and even 3-4 megawatts of electricity.

 

Disadvantages of Horizontal Wind Turbines:

  • They need high towers. Transporting the towers and the blades can be problematic. Installation of high and big turbines is difficult, cranes would be necessary during installation.
  • Turbines must face the wind.
  • In order to carry heavy blades, generators and wheels, a wide and long tower must be built.
  • Their height violates the natural view and can be objected by the locals.
  • Turbines make noise when rotating.
  •  Small turbines must be stopped in fast winds, because their blades might break.

 

Example 3: On-Grid (non-commercial)

Building a wind turbine facility in the backyard of a house.

Let’s assume that someone wants to produce license-free electricity and build his wind turbines. In order to minimize the consumption from the grid, we will assume this is a facility of 5 kWh.

When this facility works with 30% capacity in an hour; it will produce 5 x %30 =1.5 kWh of electricity.

When this facility works 8 hours per day; it will produce 1.5 kWh x 8 = 12 kWh/day of electricity.

If the household consumes 8 kWh per day, the surplus will be 12-8= 4 kWh/day(+).

Let’s assume next day, there is less wind.

In this case, the facility will produce 5 kWp x %20 = 1 kWh per hour. If there is a 6 hour production, 1 x 6 = 6 kWh will be produced per day. If the household consume 12 kW of energy that day, 6-12 = -6 kWh(-) will be the surplus.

1st day: 5 x %30 x 8 =12- 8 = 4 kWh/day (+) surplus.

2nd day: 5 x %20 x 1 = 6-12 = -6 kWh/day (-) surplus.

 

If we assume 15 days of working for both examples,

 

12 kWh/day x 15 = 180kWh production 8kWh/day x 15 = 120kWh consumption

6 kWh/day X 15 = 90kWh production 12kWh/day x 15 = 180kWh consumption

+_________________________________________________

270kWh/month production 300kWh/month consumption

 

Total consumption would pay 300 x 26 Kuruş = 78 TL energy cost. (excluding the cost of use and other fees)

The system would consume 270 – 300 = -30 kWh/month (-).

According to this; 30 x 26 Kuruş = 7,8 TL energy cost will be paid.

So ; 78 – 7,8 = 70,2 TL will be saved.

In conclusion, excluding feasibility, investment and management costs, this person gets 70,2 x 12 = 842,4 TL back every year.

 

Example 4: On-Grid Commercial Systems

Building a wind energy facility in a factory yard.

Let’s assume that a factory owner wants to produce license-free electricity and built a wind turbine. Considering size and other factors, we will assume this is a facility of 500 kWh.

When this facility works with 30% capacity in an hour; it will produce 500 x %30 =150 kWh electricity.

When this facility works 8 hours per day; it will produce 150 x 8 = 1200 kWh electricity.

If the factory consumes 3000 kWh this day, it will receive 1200-3000= -1800 kWh energy from the grid.

Let’s assume next day, there is less wind.

In a day the facility will produce 500 x %20 = 100 kWh of electricity. If there is 4 hours of production, 100 x 4 = 400 kWh of electricity is generated. If the factory consumes 3000 kWh, 400-3000 = -2600 kWh is received from the grid.

1st day: 500 x %30 x 8 = 1200-3000 = 1800 kWh.

2nd day: 500 x %20 x 4 = 400-3000 = -2600 kWh.

 

Since there is no surplus, we will calculate the invoice and assets with the total amount of cost of support (7,3 $ cents) and 21 krş/kWh factory subscription fee.

The invoice would be:

 

1.st day: 1800 kWh x 21 krş = 378 TL, and for 15 days 378 x 15 =5670 TL

2nd day: 2600 kWh x 21 krş = 546 TL, and for 15 days 546 x 15 = 8190 TL

5670 + 8190 = 13860 TL will be the monthly cost (excluding costs of use and other fees).

 

The asset would be;

1st day: 1200 kWh x 21 krş = 252 TL , and for 15 days 252 x 15 = 3780 TL

2nd day: 400 kWh x 21 krş = 84 TL, and for 15 days 84 x 15 = 1260 TL

Total cost will be 3780 + 1260 = 5040 TL.

 

If the person did not consume this energy and gave it to the main grid how much support would he get?

If (1200 x 15= 18000) + (400 x 15 = 6000); 18000 + 6000 = 24.000 x 0,073 USD/kWh X 1,85 TL/USD = 3241 TL would be his monthly asset.

In conclusion;

  • Excluding feasibility, investment and management costs,
  • 13.860 TL will be the payment and
  • The factory owner will be exempted from paying 5.040 TL electricity bill.